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December 1, 2012

Linux command – 1.4 – File operation

cat – concatenate file(s) or standard input to standard output.

Usage:

cat [option] [file]

Options:

-A, --show-all
equivalent to -vET-b, --number-nonblank
number nonempty output lines, overrides -n

-e
equivalent to -vE

-E, --show-ends
display $ at end of each line

-n, --number
number all output lines

-s, --squeeze-blank
suppress repeated empty output lines

-T, --show-tabs
display TAB characters as ^I

-u
(ignored)

-v, --show-nonprinting
use ^ and M- notation, except for LFD and TAB

Example: Combine 2 files

$ cat file1 file2 > newfile

Example: Append a file to another file

$ cat file1 >> file2

cp – copy / duplicate files and/or directories

Usage:

cp [option] [source] [destination]

Options:

-a, --archive
same as -dR --preserve=all--attributes-only
don't copy the file data, just the attributes

--backup[=CONTROL]
make a backup of each existing destination file

-b like --backup but does not accept an argument

--copy-contents
copy contents of special files when recursive

-d same as --no-dereference --preserve=links

-f, --force
if an existing destination file cannot be opened, remove it and try again (redundant if the -n option is used)

-i, --interactive
prompt before overwrite (overrides a previous -n option)

-H follow command-line symbolic links in SOURCE

-l, --link
hard link files instead of copying

-L, --dereference
always follow symbolic links in SOURCE

-n, --no-clobber
do not overwrite an existing file (overrides a previous -i option)

-P, --no-dereference
never follow symbolic links in SOURCE

-p same as --preserve=mode,ownership,timestamps

--preserve[=ATTR_LIST]
preserve the specified attributes (default: mode,ownership,timestamps), if possible additional attributes: context, links, xattr, all

-c same as --preserve=context

--no-preserve=ATTR_LIST
don't preserve the specified attributes

--parents
use full source file name under DIRECTORY

-R, -r, --recursive
copy directories recursively

--reflink[=WHEN]
control clone/CoW copies. See below

--remove-destination
remove each existing destination file before attempting to open it (contrast with --force)

--sparse=WHEN
control creation of sparse files. See below

--strip-trailing-slashes
remove any trailing slashes from each SOURCE argument

-s, --symbolic-link
make symbolic links instead of copying

-S, --suffix=SUFFIX
override the usual backup suffix

-t, --target-directory=DIRECTORY
copy all SOURCE arguments into DIRECTORY

-T, --no-target-directory
treat DEST as a normal file

-u, --update
copy only when the SOURCE file is newer than the destination file or when the destination file is missing

-v, --verbose
explain what is being done

-x, --one-file-system
stay on this file system

-Z, --context=CONTEXT
set security context of copy to CONTEXT

Example: Copy file1 to file2

$ cp file1 file2

Example: Create a new symbolic link of file1 as file2

$ cp -s file1 file2

mv – move / rename files and/or directories

Usage:

mv [option] [source] [destination]

Options:

--backup[=CONTROL]
make a backup of each existing destination file-b
like --backup but does not accept an argument

-f, --force
do not prompt before overwriting

-i, --interactive
prompt before overwrite

-n, --no-clobber
do not overwrite an existing file

--strip-trailing-slashes
remove any trailing slashes from each SOURCE argument

-S, --suffix=SUFFIX
override the usual backup suffix

-t, --target-directory=DIRECTORY
move all SOURCE arguments into DIRECTORY

-T, --no-target-directory
treat DEST as a normal file

-u, --update
move only when the SOURCE file is newer than the destination file or when the destination file is missing

-v, --verbose
explain what is being done

Example: Rename file1 to file2

$ mv file1 file2

Example: Move folder to a new destination

$ mv /path/to/source /path/to/destination

mkdir – make a new directory

Usage:

mkdir [option] [dir]

Options:

-m, --mode=MODE
set file mode (as in chmod), not a=rwx - umask-p, --parents
no error if existing, make parent directories as needed

-v, --verbose
print a message for each created directory

-Z, --context=CTX
set the SELinux security context of each created directory to CTX

Example: Making a new directory and print a message explaining what is being done

$ mkdir -v NewFolder
mkdir: created directory `NewFolder'

rm – remove / delete a file

Usage:

rm [option] [file]

Options:

-f, --force
ignore nonexistent files, never prompt-i
prompt before every removal

-I
prompt once before removing more than three files, or when removing recursively. Less intrusive than -i, while still giving protection against most mistakes

--interactive[=WHEN]
prompt according to WHEN: never, once (-I), or always (-i). Without WHEN, prompt always

--one-file-system
when removing a hierarchy recursively, skip any directory that is on a file system different from that of the corresponding command line argument

--no-preserve-root
do not treat `/' specially

--preserve-root
do not remove `/' (default)

-r, -R, --recursive
remove directories and their contents recursively

-v, --verbose
explain what is being done

Example: Remove a directory and print a message explaining what is being done

user@ubuntu:~$ rm -rv test2
removed directory: `test2'

ln – create symbolic link

Usage:

ln [source] [destination](create a link to TARGET with the name LINK_NAME)
ln [OPTION] [-T] TARGET LINK_NAME

(create a link to TARGET in the current directory)
ln [OPTION] TARGET

(create links to each TARGET in DIRECTORY)
ln [OPTION] TARGET DIRECTORY
ln [OPTION] -t DIRECTORY TARGET

Create hard links by default, symbolic links with --symbolic. When creating hard links, each TARGET must exist. Symbolic links can hold arbitrary text; if later resolved, a relative link is interpreted in relation to its parent directory.

Options:

--backup[=CONTROL]
make a backup of each existing destination file-b
like --backup but does not accept an argument

-d, -F, --directory
allow the superuser to attempt to hard link directories (note: will probably fail due to system restrictions, even for the superuser)

-f, --force
remove existing destination files

-i, --interactive
prompt whether to remove destinations

-L, --logical
make hard links to symbolic link references

-n, --no-dereference
treat destination that is a symlink to a directory as if it were a normal file

-P, --physical
make hard links directly to symbolic links

-s, --symbolic
make symbolic links instead of hard links

-S, --suffix=SUFFIX
override the usual backup suffix

-t, --target-directory=DIRECTORY
specify the DIRECTORY in which to create the links

-T, --no-target-directory
treat LINK_NAME as a normal file

-v, --verbose
print name of each linked file

--help
display this help and exit

--version
output version information and exit

touch – update the access time and last modified date for a file to the current time and date

Usage:

touch [option] [file]

Options:

-a
change only the access time-c, --no-create
do not create any files

-d, --date=STRING
parse STRING and use it instead of current time

-f
(ignored)

-h, --no-dereference
affect each symbolic link instead of any referenced file (useful only on systems that can change the timestamps of a symlink)

-m
change only the modification time

-r, --reference=FILE
use this file's times instead of current time

-t STAMP
use [[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[.ss] instead of current time

--time=WORD
change the specified time: WORD is access, atime, or use: equivalent to -a WORD is modify or mtime: equivalent to -m

Example: Change the access time of a file to specified date

$ touch -t 199912131415 filename
Filed under: Linux — Tags: , , , , , , , — GG @ 3:37 pm

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