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December 1, 2012

Linux command – 1.3 – Viewing file

more – file perusal filter for crt viewing

View a file in terminal with ability to scroll down.


more [-dlfpcsu] [-num] [+/pattern] [+linenum] [file ...]


This option specifies an integer number which is the screen size (in lines).

more will prompt the user with the message "[Press space to continue, 'q' to quit.]" and will display "[Press 'h' for instructions.]" instead of ringing the bell when an illegal key is pressed.

more usually treats ^L (form feed) as a special character, and will pause after any line that contains a form feed. The -l option will prevent this behavior.

Causes more to count logical, rather than screen lines (i.e., long lines are not folded).

Do not scroll. Instead, clear the whole screen and then display the text. Notice that this option is switched on automatically if the executable is named page.

Do not scroll. Instead, paint each screen from the top, clearing the remainder of each line as it is displayed.

Squeeze multiple blank lines into one.

Suppress underlining.

The +/ option specifies a string that will be searched for before each file is displayed.

Start at line number.

less – opposite of more

View a file in terminal with ability to scroll up and down.


less -?
less --help
less -V
less --version
less [-[+]aABcCdeEfFgGiIJKLmMnNqQrRsSuUVwWX~] [-b space] [-h lines] [-j line] [-k keyfile] [-{oO} logfile] [-p pattern] [-P prompt] [-t tag] [-T tagsfile] [-x tab,...] [-y lines] [-[z] lines] [-# shift] [+[+]cmd] [--] [filename]...


-?, --help
This option displays a summary of the commands accepted by  less (the  same  as  the  h  command). (Depending on how your shell interprets the question mark, it may be necessary to  quote  the question mark, thus: "-?".)

-a, --search-skip-screen
Forward search skips current screen.

Forward search always skips target line.

-b[N], --buffers=[N]
Number of buffers.

-B, --auto-buffers
Don't automatically allocate buffers for pipes.

-c, --clear-screen
Repaint by clearing rather than scrolling.

-d, --dumb
Dumb terminal.

-D[xn.n], --color=xn.n
Set screen colors. (MS-DOS only)

-e, -E, --quit-at-eof, --QUIT-AT-EOF
Quit at end of file.

-f, --force
Force open non-regular files.

-F, --quit-if-one-screen
Quit if entire file fits on first screen.

-g, --hilite-search
Highlight only last match for searches.

Don't highlight any matches for searches.

-h [N], --max-back-scroll=[N]
Backward scroll limit.

-i, --ignore-case
Ignore case in searches that do not contain uppercase.

Ignore case in all searches.

-j [N], --jump-target=[N]
Screen position of target lines.

-J, --status-column
Display a status column at left edge of screen.

-k [file], --lesskey-file=[file]
Use a lesskey file.

-K, --quit-on-intr
Exit less in response to ctrl-C.

-L, --no-lessopen
Ignore the LESSOPEN environment variable.

-m, -M, --long-prompt, --LONG-PROMPT
Set prompt style.

-n, -N, --line-numbers, --LINE-NUMBERS
Don't use line numbers.

-o [file], --log-file=[file]
Copy to log file (standard input only).

-O [file], --LOG-FILE=[file]
Copy to log file (unconditionally overwrite).

-p [pattern], --pattern=[pattern]
Start at pattern (from command line).

-P [prompt], --prompt=[prompt]
Define new prompt.

-q, -Q, --quiet, --QUIET, --silent, --SILENT
Quiet the terminal bell.

-r, -R, --raw-control-chars, --RAW-CONTROL-CHARS
Output "raw" control characters.

-s, --squeeze-blank-lines
Squeeze multiple blank lines.

-S, --chop-long-lines
Chop long lines.

-t [tag], --tag=[tag]
Find a tag.

-T [tagsfile], --tag-file=[tagsfile]
Use an alternate tags file.

-u, -U, --underline-special, --UNDERLINE-SPECIAL
Change handling of backspaces.

-V, --version
Display the version number of "less".

-w, --hilite-unread
Highlight first new line after forward-screen.

Highlight first new line after any forward movement.

-x [N[,...]], --tabs=[N[,...]]
Set tab stops.

-X, --no-init
Don't use termcap init/deinit strings.
 Don't use termcap keypad init/deinit strings.

-y[N], --max-forw-scroll=[N]
Forward scroll limit.

-z[N], --window=[N]
Set size of window.

-" [c[c]], --quotes=[c[c]]
Set shell quote characters.

-~, --tilde
Don't display tildes after end of file.

-# [N], --shift=[N]
Horizontal scroll amount (0 = one half screen width)

Don't send keypad init/deinit sequence.

The F command changes files if the input file is renamed.

head – output the first part of files


head [OPTION]… [FILE]…Options:

-c, --bytes=[-]K
print the first K bytes of each file; with the leading `-', print all but the last K bytes of each file

-n, --lines=[-]K
print the first K lines instead of the first 10; with the leading `-', print all but the last K lines of each file

-q, --quiet, --silent
never print headers giving file names

-v, --verbose
always print headers giving file names

display this help and exit

output version information and exit

K may have a multiplier suffix: b 512, kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, GB 1000*1000*1000, G 1024*1024*1024, and so on for T, P, E, Z, Y.

tail – output the last part of files


tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...


-c, --bytes=K
output the last K bytes; alternatively, use -c +K to output bytes starting with the Kth of each file

-f, --follow[={name|descriptor}]
output appended data as the file grows; -f, --follow, and --follow=descriptor are equivalent

same as --follow=name --retry

-n, --lines=K
output the last K lines, instead of the last 10; or use -n +K to output lines starting with the Kth

with --follow=name, reopen a FILE which has not changed size after N (default 5) iterations to see if it has been unlinked or renamed (this is the usual case of rotated log files). With inotify, this option is rarely useful.

with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies

-q, --quiet, --silent
never output headers giving file names

keep trying to open a file even when it is or becomes inaccessible; useful when following by name, i.e., with --follow=name

-s, --sleep-interval=N
with -f, sleep for approximately N seconds (default 1.0) between iterations. With inotify and --pid=P, check process P at least once every N seconds.

-v, --verbose
always output headers giving file names

pg – browse pagewise through text files


pg [-number] [-p string] [-cefnrs] [+line] [+/pattern/] [file...]


The number of lines per page. Usually, this is the number of CRT lines minus one.

Clear the screen before a page is displayed, if the terminfo entry for the terminal provides this capability.

Do not pause and display (EOF) at the end of a file.

Do not split long lines.

Without this option, commands must be terminated by a newline character. With this option, pg advances once a command letter is entered.

-p string
Instead of the normal prompt :, string is displayed. If string contains %d, its first occurrence is replaced by the number of the current page.

Disallow the shell escape.

Print messages in standout mode, if the terminfo entry for the terminal provides this capability.

Start at the given line.

Start at the line containing the Basic Regular Expression patâ tern given.
Filed under: Linux — Tags: , , , , , , — GG @ 3:55 pm

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