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December 1, 2012

Linux command – 1.1 – Navigating file system

pwd – print the full pathname of the current working directory


pwd [-LP]


-L / --logical
use PWD from environment, even if it contains symlinks

-P / --physical
avoid all symlinks

Example: Print the current working directory

$ pwd

cd – change the current working directory


cd [-L|[-P [-e]]] [dir]


use PWD from environment, even if it contains symlinks

avoid all symlinks

return unsuccessful status if the current working directory cannot be successfully determined after a successful directory change

Example: Change working directory to file system root

[user@ubuntu ~]$ cd /
[user@ubuntu /]$

ls – list directory contents


ls [option] [file]


-a, --all
do not ignore entries starting with .

-A, --almost-all
do not list implied . and ..

with -l, print the author of each file

-b, --escape
print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters

scale sizes by SIZE before printing them. SIZE is an integer and optional unit (example: 10M is 10*1024*1024). Units are K, M, G, T, P, E, Z, Y (powers of 1024) or KB, MB, ... (powers of 1000).
`--block-size=K' prints sizes in units of 1,024 bytes.
`--block-size=M' prints sizes in units of 1,048,576 bytes.

-B, --ignore-backups
do not list implied entries ending with ~

with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status information)
with -l: show ctime and sort by name otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first

list entries by columns

colorize the output. WHEN defaults to `always' or can be `never' or `auto'. Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and with --color=never. With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when standard output is connected to a terminal. The LS_COLORS environment variable can change the settings. Use the dircolors command to set it.

-d, --directory
list directory entries instead of contents, and do not dereference symbolic links

-D, --dired
generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

-F, --classify
append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

likewise, except do not append `*'

across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C

like -l --time-style=full-iso

like -l, but do not list owner

group directories before files. augment with a --sort option, but any use of --sort=none (-U) disables grouping

-G, --no-group
in a long listing, don't print group names

-h, --human-readable
with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

-H, --dereference-command-line
follow symbolic links listed on the command line

follow each command line symbolic link that points to a directory

do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)

append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default), slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

-i, --inode
print the index number of each file

-I, --ignore=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

like --block-size=1K

use a long listing format

-L, --dereference
when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information for the file the link references rather than for the link itself

fill width with a comma separated list of entries

-n, --numeric-uid-gid
like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

-N, --literal
print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters specially)

like -l, but do not list group information

-p, --indicator-style=slash
append / indicator to directories

-q, --hide-control-chars
print ? instead of non graphic characters

show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is `ls' and output is a terminal)

-Q, --quote-name
enclose entry names in double quotes

use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape

-r, --reverse
reverse order while sorting

-R, --recursive
list subdirectories recursively

-s, --size
print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

sort by file size

sort by WORD instead of name: none -U, extension -X, size -S, time -t, version -v

with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime -u, access -u, use -u, ctime -c, or status -c; use specified time as sort key if --sort=time

with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, +FORMAT. FORMAT is interpreted like `date'; if FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with `posix-', STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

sort by modification time, newest first

-T, --tabsize=COLS
assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time

do not sort; list entries in directory order

natural sort of (version) numbers within text

-w, --width=COLS
assume screen width instead of current value

list entries by lines instead of by columns

sort alphabetically by entry extension

list one file per line

Example: List all files & directories in file system root

$ ls /
bin   dev   initrd.img  lost+found  opt   run      srv  usr
boot  etc   lib         media       proc  sbin     sys  var
data  home  lib64       mnt         root  selinux  tmp  vmlinuz

Example: List all contents exclude those with specified file extension.

$ ls --hide='*.bak'
Filed under: Linux — Tags: , , , , — GG @ 3:14 pm

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