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December 1, 2012

Linux command – 1.1 – Navigating file system

pwd – print the full pathname of the current working directory

Usage:

pwd [-LP]

Options:

-L / --logical
use PWD from environment, even if it contains symlinks

-P / --physical
avoid all symlinks

Example: Print the current working directory

$ pwd
/home/user

cd – change the current working directory

Usage:

cd [-L|[-P [-e]]] [dir]

Options:

-L
use PWD from environment, even if it contains symlinks

-P
avoid all symlinks

-e
return unsuccessful status if the current working directory cannot be successfully determined after a successful directory change

Example: Change working directory to file system root

[user@ubuntu ~]$ cd /
[user@ubuntu /]$

ls – list directory contents

Usage:

ls [option] [file]

Options:

-a, --all
do not ignore entries starting with .

-A, --almost-all
do not list implied . and ..

--author
with -l, print the author of each file

-b, --escape
print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters

--block-size=SIZE
scale sizes by SIZE before printing them. SIZE is an integer and optional unit (example: 10M is 10*1024*1024). Units are K, M, G, T, P, E, Z, Y (powers of 1024) or KB, MB, ... (powers of 1000).
E.g.,
`--block-size=K' prints sizes in units of 1,024 bytes.
`--block-size=M' prints sizes in units of 1,048,576 bytes.

-B, --ignore-backups
do not list implied entries ending with ~

-c
with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status information)
with -l: show ctime and sort by name otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first

-C
list entries by columns

--color[=WHEN]
colorize the output. WHEN defaults to `always' or can be `never' or `auto'. Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and with --color=never. With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when standard output is connected to a terminal. The LS_COLORS environment variable can change the settings. Use the dircolors command to set it.

-d, --directory
list directory entries instead of contents, and do not dereference symbolic links

-D, --dired
generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

-f
do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

-F, --classify
append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

--file-type
likewise, except do not append `*'

--format=WORD
across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C

--full-time
like -l --time-style=full-iso

-g
like -l, but do not list owner

--group-directories-first
group directories before files. augment with a --sort option, but any use of --sort=none (-U) disables grouping

-G, --no-group
in a long listing, don't print group names

-h, --human-readable
with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

--si
likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

-H, --dereference-command-line
follow symbolic links listed on the command line

--dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
follow each command line symbolic link that points to a directory

--hide=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)

--indicator-style=WORD
append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default), slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

-i, --inode
print the index number of each file

-I, --ignore=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

-k
like --block-size=1K

-l
use a long listing format

-L, --dereference
when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information for the file the link references rather than for the link itself

-m
fill width with a comma separated list of entries

-n, --numeric-uid-gid
like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

-N, --literal
print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters specially)

-o
like -l, but do not list group information

-p, --indicator-style=slash
append / indicator to directories

-q, --hide-control-chars
print ? instead of non graphic characters

--show-control-chars
show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is `ls' and output is a terminal)

-Q, --quote-name
enclose entry names in double quotes

--quoting-style=WORD
use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape

-r, --reverse
reverse order while sorting

-R, --recursive
list subdirectories recursively

-s, --size
print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

-S
sort by file size

--sort=WORD
sort by WORD instead of name: none -U, extension -X, size -S, time -t, version -v

--time=WORD
with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime -u, access -u, use -u, ctime -c, or status -c; use specified time as sort key if --sort=time

--time-style=STYLE
with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, +FORMAT. FORMAT is interpreted like `date'; if FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with `posix-', STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

-t
sort by modification time, newest first

-T, --tabsize=COLS
assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

-u
with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time

-U
do not sort; list entries in directory order

-v
natural sort of (version) numbers within text

-w, --width=COLS
assume screen width instead of current value

-x
list entries by lines instead of by columns

-X
sort alphabetically by entry extension

-1
list one file per line

Example: List all files & directories in file system root

$ ls /
bin   dev   initrd.img  lost+found  opt   run      srv  usr
boot  etc   lib         media       proc  sbin     sys  var
data  home  lib64       mnt         root  selinux  tmp  vmlinuz

Example: List all contents exclude those with specified file extension.

$ ls --hide='*.bak'
Filed under: Linux — Tags: , , , , — GG @ 3:14 pm

March 24, 2012

Web Development Environment in Ubuntu Linux

PART 1 – Ubuntu
Ubuntu is a computer operating system based on the Debian Linux distribution and distributed as free and open source software, using its own desktop environment.

  1. Download & install Ubuntu Linux.
  2. Update package index and upgrade OS.
    To update package index
    sudo apt-get update

    To upgrade all installed packages

    sudo apt-get upgrade
  3. Installing software packages
    To install a package
    sudo apt-get install <package-name>

    To remove a package

    sudo apt-get remove <package-name>

PART 2 – LAMP
LAMP is an acronym for a solution stack of free, open source software, referring to the first letters of Linux (operating system), Apache HTTP Server, MySQL (database software) and PHP (or sometimes Perl or Python), principal components to build a viable general purpose web server.

  1. Install LAMP
    To install Apache 2, MySQL 5, PHP 5, Apache PHP5 module, PHP MySQL package.
    sudo apt-get install apache2
    sudo apt-get install mysql-server
    sudo apt-get install mysql-client
    sudo apt-get install php5
    sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-php5
    sudo apt-get install php5-mysql 

    or simply

    sudo apt-get install lamp-server^

    to install all packages below:
    perl-modules apache2 mysql-server-core-5.1 mysql-client-core-5.1 perl libmysqlclient16 libdbi-perl apache2-mpm-prefork apache2.2-common apache2.2-bin apache2-utils libapr1 libaprutil1 libaprutil1-dbd-sqlite3 libaprutil1-ldap libcap2 ssl-cert libwrap0 mysql-server libapache2-mod-php5 php5-common php5-cli libclass-isa-perl libdbd-mysql-perl libplrpc-perl libhtml-template-perl mysql-common libnet-daemon-perl libpod-plainer-perl libswitch-perl tcpd mysql-client-5.1 mysql-server-5.1 php5-mysql

PART 3 – Optional Packages

  1. Zend Framework Zend Framework is an open source, object oriented web application framework for PHP 5.
    To install Zend Framwork CLI
    sudo apt-get install zend-framework-bin
  2. PHPUnit PHPUnit is a unit testing software framework for PHP.
    To install PHPUnit
    sudo apt-get install php-pear
    sudo pear channel-update pear.php.net
    sudo pear channel-discover pear.phpunit.de
    sudo pear channel-discover pear.symfony-project.com
    sudo pear update-channels
    sudo pear upgrade-all
    sudo pear install --alldeps phpunit/PHPUnit
    sudo apt-get install phpunit

    or

    sudo apt-get install php-pear
    sudo pear update-channels
    sudo pear config-set auto_discover 1
    sudo pear install --alldeps pear.phpunit.de/PHPUnit
    sudo apt-get install phpunit
  3. Xdebug
    Xdebug is a PHP extension which provides debugging and profiling capabilities.
    To install Xdebug
    sudo apt-get install php5-xdebug

    Add the following lines into etc/php5/conf.d/xdebug.ini if it does not exist.

    zend_extension = “/usr/lib/php5/20090626-lfs/xdebug.so”
    xdebug.remote_enable=on
    xdebug.remote_handler=dbgp
    xdebug.remote_host=localhost
    xdebug.remote_port=9000
  4. Optional PHP extensions
    To install PHP extensions
    sudo apt-get install php5-cgi php5-cli php5-curl php5-gd php5-idn php5-imagick php5-imap php5-mcrypt php5-memcache php5-ming php5-mysql php5-pgsql php5-ps php5-pspell php5-recode php5-snmp php5-sqlite php5-tidy php5-xmlrpc php5-xsl

    * install only which needed.

  5. MySQL GUI tools
    1. Install MySQL Administrator and MySQL Query Browser
      sudo apt-get install mysql-admin
      sudo apt-get install mysql-query-browser

      and/or

    2. Install MySQL Workbench
      sudo apt-get install mysql-workbench
      sudo apt-get install mysql-query-browser

      and/or

    3. Install phpMyAdmin
      sudo apt-get install phpmyadmin

      Add the following line into /etc/apache2/apache2.conf

      Include /etc/phpmyadmin/apache.conf
  6. Integrated Development Environment
    1. Eclipse
      Install Eclipse IDE
      sudo apt-get install eclipse

      Install PHP Development Tools (PDT)

      sudo add-apt-repository ppa:yogarine/eclipse/ubuntu
      sudo apt-get update
      sudo apt-get install eclipse-pdt

      and/or

    2. Netbeans IDE
      Download & install Netbeans IDE
      Install Java
      sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jdk sun-java6-jre

      Download & install Netbeans

      sudo sh ./netbeans-7.1.1-ml-php-linux.sh

      Install Netbeans

      sudo apt-get install netbeans

      Or download & install the Java SE and NetBeans Cobundle

      sudo sh ./jdk-7u3-nb-7_1_1-linux-ml.sh
  7. Web browser debugging tool
    1. Firebug Install Firebug. or
    2. Developer tools in Chromium Browser Install Chromium Browser
      sudo apt-get install chromium-browser

      Press Ctrl+Shift+I to open Developer Tools

  8. Install version control system
    1. Subversion
      Subversion (SVN) is a software versioning and revision control system distributed under an open source license.
      Install Subversion
      sudo apt-get install subversion
      sudo apt-get install libapache2-svn
    2. Git
      Git is a distributed revision control and source code management (SCM) system with an emphasis on speed.
      Install Git
      sudo apt-get install git-core
      sudo apt-get install git-doc
      sudo apt-get install git-svn
      sudo apt-get build-dep git-core git-doc git-svn

PART 4 – Packages version
To check installed packages version

apache2 -v
php -v
mysql -V
phpunit --version
git --version
svn --version
java -version
zf show version
Filed under: Linux,MySQL,PHP,Web,Zend Framework — Tags: , , , , , — GG @ 10:26 pm

January 15, 2012

Zend Framework Command Line Tool with administrator rights

Issue:

  • Problem using Zend Framework zf.bat in Windows.
  • Unable to create project using zf Command Line Tool.
    C:\Program Files\Zend\ZendServer\share\ZendFramework\bin>zf create project mypro
    ject
    Warning: mkdir(): Permission denied in C:\Program Files\Zend\ZendServer\share\Ze
    ndFramework\library\Zend\Tool\Project\Provider\Project.php on line 55
                              An Error Has Occurred
     Could not create requested project directory 'myproject'
    
    Zend Framework Command Line Console Tool v1.11.11
    Details for action "Create" and provider "Project"
      Project
        zf create project path name-of-profile file-of-profile

Reason:

  • Administrator rights are required to create folders and files into specified location.

Solution:

  • Run the command as administrator To start command prompt as administrator, right click on the its shortcut, and choose run as administrator. You can also select the command prompt shortcut and press Ctrl + Shift + Enter.
    C:\Program Files\Zend\ZendServer\share\ZendFramework\bin>zf create project mypro
    ject
    Creating project at C:/Program Files/Zend/ZendServer/share/ZendFramework/bin/myp
    roject
    Note: This command created a web project, for more information setting up your V
    HOST, please see docs/README
  • For Zend Framework CLI in Linux, use sudo to execute zf.sh
    sudo zf.sh create project myproject
Filed under: Linux,PHP,Windows,Zend Framework — Tags: , , , — GG @ 1:12 am
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